After several false starts I have successfully converted the backend of my website from Jekyll to Hugo.
My website has been in existence since sometime in 1995. I purchased my domain in February 1996. The first weblog, or blog posting, happened in late 1999. Since then I have written another 2,250 postings using a variety of tools. What started out as a hand coded site, moved to Blogger, then to MoveableType, followed by WordPress, and eventually Octopress. Since 2013 I have been using Jekyll as the static site generator for this site.
Jekyll has been a good tool, and I have been able to do a lot with it. Its reliance upon a number of Ruby Gems has always made it a little fragile. Even with a Ruby virtual environment set aside just for Jekyll I occasionally had problems requiring that I rebuild my Jekyll infrastructure. In June 2021 I purchased an M1 iMac and I did not install Jekyll on that computer. Instead I switched to using a Docker container with Jekyll. This worked well, and it eliminated the Jenga-block stack of Ruby Gems required to make everything go.
A few weeks ago I started writing a series of posts about exploring the Rust programming language.
After I published the first posting, I was dismayed to discover that the second post, still in the
_drafts folder was also showing on my site. While this may have been an error on my part, it was
enough to spur me on to completing a migration to Hugo.
I had looked at Hugo several times in the past, but never got past the hurdle of converting my corpus of postings. I did get past that hurdle, and I also ported my site’s theme to Hugo.
The Hugo website has links to a couple of scripts that can be used to convert Jekyll-formatted posts to the format Hugo expects. Both of them expect fairly generic posts, and neither were capable of dealing with all of my edge cases.
So I wrote my own conversion tool. Since Hugo is Go language based, I used Go. My tool does a number of conversions:
categoryfront matter element to
tagsand creates a list of any tags it finds
<img … >tags to Hugo’s style
Since Hugo is based on the Go programming language, and since I have been exploring Go for the past couple of years, it only seemed appropriate that I create a Go program to convert my site’s content. I’ve shared the result, called jtoh, for Jekyll to Hugo, on GitHub.
The program is opinionated and written to complete my conversion. It could be used by others as-is, or with some modifications to how I resolved differences between the two systems.
At a high level this program reads each posting, converts the post into a string, and then runs a number of regex (Regular Expression) transforms, along with a couple parsing sub-routines, to convert front matter and shortcodes. The updated posting is then written out with the same file name to the specified destination directory.
The two trickiest transformations were the front matter date, and image tags. Due to the variety of
tools used over the past 23 years to create postings, the front matter date formatting varied. Some
postings had just
YYY/MM/DD while others had
YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM. After the conversion they all
Image tags were tricky since I needed to identify the source element, and collect all the other
elements, regardless of their order. Using a Go library that parses HTML, I was able to pass the
<img ...> string to a parsing function, and get back the Hugo image shortcode format
I worked on the
jtoh program on and off for more than two weeks, and ran the conversion repeatedly
against a copy of my content. You can read the DETAILS readme
file for a deeper dive.
Converting my current theme from Jekyll’s templating approach to Hugo’s template structure did take some trial and error. In the end what I did was create a new Hugo theme using
hugo new theme mytheme
and then copied generic template elements from the
theme directory to their corresponding
directories at the root of my site’s repository. Once I had a working, generic template, I then
added my style sheets, and started tweaking how the templates presented different aspects of my site.
Hugo allows you to create multiple content types through archetypes. I now have the ability to create
a new posting, a new link post, or a new video link post. Each of those has the same basic front
matter, with some minor differences. Each of these types has it’s own directory within the
directory, and within the templates that produce the site it is possible to treat each differently.
I haven’t explored different formatting for link or video posts, to distinguish them from my posts, but I am planning on something to offset them.
Under the covers Hugo organizes the templates, static files, and content that make up a site differently than Jekyll. The layout makes sense and isn’t hard to navigate. Here is the overall layout of my site:
├── archetypes ├── assets │ └── images ├── blog │ ├── css │ └── js ├── content │ ├── links │ ├── posts │ └── videos ├── data ├── layouts │ ├── _default │ ├── archive │ ├── partials │ └── shortcodes ├── resources │ └── _gen ├── static │ ├── css │ ├── fonts │ └── js └── themes └── blog
The templates are all contained in the
layouts directory. I’m not doing anything outrageous with
my site. What were
_includes in Jekylle are
partials in Hugo. The
_default directory has the
different default pages: the base, overall layout, and then layouts for list pages, single post
pages, and for my, a layout for links and video posts. These layouts make use of the partials to
help keep the HTML DRY. Here is a more detailed look at the layouts directory;
layouts ├── 404.html ├── _default │ ├── baseof.html │ ├── link.html │ ├── list.html │ ├── page.html │ ├── single.html │ └── video.html ├── archive │ └── single.html ├── index.html ├── index.xml ├── partials │ ├── aside.html │ ├── footer.html │ ├── head.html │ ├── header.html │ ├── link-footer.html │ ├── metadata.html │ ├── post-footer.html │ └── scripts.html └── shortcodes └── rawhtml.html
you want at the root of your site goes. Consequently, I have a
robots.txt file there, as well as
static ├── css ├── favicon.ico ├── fonts ├── js ├── keybase.txt └── robots.txt
Previously I was using a Google Font called Lato for my site. Now I’m using two GDPR-compliant fonts from Bunny Fonts, called Gotu, and Cormorant SC. Gotu is used for all the content, and the small cap Cormorant font is for headings and titles.
I’ve also bumped up the font size from 16 to 18 pixels, and increased the weight from 300 to 400. All of these changes make the site easier to read, and refreshes my theme.
Those posts on my site that lead to some other site are now marked by a pair of chain links. The title link leads to the other site, while the chain links icon is a link to the posting on my archive page.
I’ve had the same image as the header on my site for more than 20 years. That isn’t going away. I have added a few more links to subdomains my site has. I’ve had a password strength tester for some time now, but never had a public link to it. That has been added to the sidebar. I also have a page with some reference material about CIDR (Classless inter-domain routing) notation, that is now linked in the sidebar.
The layout of the archive page still lists posts by year, but it uses an HTML table rather then unordered lists elements, for better alignment of the columns. I need to add a search function to this page.
The reason for converting my site was two-fold. One, performance, and two, reduced time spent maintaining the tool (Jekyll).
One of the features touted about Hugo is its performance. On Jekyll, running natively (i.e., not in
a Docker container) it takes ~11 seconds from the time I type
rake watch[drafts] until the site
has been generated and is ready to be viewed on the local machine.
On Hugo, my site takes 888 ms or 0.8 seconds, to generate the site. Incremental changes, such as saving this posting, regenerate in anywhere from 100 to 300 ms.
The Docker container was considerably slower. From the time Docker is started until the site is generated is ~130-140 seconds. Incremental changes are anywhere from 60-90 seconds. Using a container for Jekyll was obviously not a good choice.
As I alluded to above, maintaining a Ruby environment for Jekyll that was walled off from my other Ruby activities required some effort. Periodically some Gem would get an update, or Ruby would update and I’d have to rebuild the whole stack again. Usually this wasn’t a problem, but it was tiresome. I like that Hugo is a single executable.
I’m pleased with the changes to my site: both behind the scenes and visible to anyone who visits. Having spent time over several weeks doing the conversion and creating a theme, I feel like I blew the dust of the site. I am reinvigorated to post more.
I still have a smaller subdomain to convert (only 250-ish posts). With the conversion program I wrote, and with my own theme ready to go, that migration should be fairly quick and easy.